Urinary tract infection was one of the major common bacterial infections affect the women, & 50% to 60% of adult women may experience a UTI during their entire lifetime. When there was recurrent infection with the same organism in spite of giving adequate therapy, it was considered as a relapse. Reinfection was defined as recurrent UTI which was caused by a different bacterial isolate, or by the earlier isolated bacteria after some negative intervening culture or an adequate time period in between the infections. UTIs may happens when the bladder, kidneys, ureters or urethra will become infected.


The main causative pathogen that may involve in recurrent UTI in women were E. coli, which was responsible for about 80% of all cases of infection. Other important pathogens that may include was Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilus and Klebsiella pneumoniae which each causes about 4% of all cases of acute cystitis. Citrobacter & Enterococci was less likely causes of UTI in the women. Infection with the organisms that won’t usually cause UTIs can be an indicator of underlying structural abnormalities of renal.


Symptoms of a UTI may include:

  • pain when urinating

  • changes in appearance or smell of urine

  • fever

  • changes in frequency of urination

  • lower abdominal pain

  • loss of appetite

  • lower back pain or discomfort

  • nausea

  • chills

  • vomiting

UTIs may also affect kids symptoms will be like they will wet their pants or the bed, even if they don’t have this problem before. Infants & very young children will only show nonspecific signs, such as fever, vomiting, or decreased appetite or activity.


The typical standard for diagnosing the UTI was a “significant” bacteria in a clean-catch or catheterized urine specimen. Diagnostic estimation of the setting of predisposing factors like complicated UTI differs in that the urine culture are including antibiotic sensitivities was almost always essential to guide therapy. Obtaining the serum chemistry panel & assess the patient’s general medical status like hydration and toxicity were important. For older or immune compromised patients & those who are having congenital malformations of kidney, CT or ultrasonography is generally required.