Usually urine from a normal kidney drains from a muscular tube which is narrow called the ureter, into the bladder. When this tube becomes blocked by a stone, the kidney can quickly become affected, especially if there is infection already infects the kidney. In this case operation is necessary, it is also probable to relieve the blockage in the kidney by inserting a long plastic tube called a stent it is inserted through the skin, into the kidney and then down the ureter. This is done under local anaesthesia. Because the stent is kept into the kidney and down through ureter, it is termed as antegrade procedure. This stent will helps and allows the urine to drain in the regular fashion, from the kidney to the bladder.


  • Initially patient needs to recline on the X-ray table, usually flat on stomach or nearly flat. And then a needle put into a vein in arm, so that radiologist can give sedative or painkillers to relive pain.

  • Once in place, this needle won’t cause any pain. Patient’s will also having a monitoring device which is attached to chest and finger, and probably receives oxygen from small tubes in nose.

  • The radiologist will keep each and everything is as hygienic as possible, and doctors will wear a theatre robe and operating gloves. Then patient’s skin will be cleaned with an antiseptic, and then the rest of the body covered with a sterile theatre towel.

  • The radiologist with the help of the X-ray equipment or the ultrasound machine uses to decide the most suitable point to insert the stent into the kidney, usually it will be done on back, just below twelfth rib. Then patients skin will be anaesthetized with local anaesthetic, and a fine needle will be inserted into the kidney.

  • When the radiologist will be sure that the needle is in a suitable location, a guide wire can be placed into the kidney with the help of needle, and then passes down the ureter. Once the wire has been placed from the blockage into the bladder, a long plastic stent is located over the guide-wire, and the wire will be withdrawn.

  • Urine should then be able to pass down the stent and into the bladder. As a short-term measure, it may be essential to leave a fine plastic drainage tube is called as catheter, in the kidney that is used to let urine drain outwardly. Later this catheter is needs to fix to the skin surface, and then fixed to the drainage bag.