Male infertility is referred as male’s inability to cause pregnancy in fertile female. Male infertility is because of little sperm production, the function of the sperm will be abnormal or blockages that stop the delivery of sperms. Chronic health problems, Illnesses, lifestyle choices, injuries and other factors may play a role to cause male infertility. In humans 40-50% of infertility is noted. It affects around 7% of all men. Male infertility is common due to semen deficiency, and quality of the semen quality is used as a surrogate evaluation of male fecundity.

  • Problems with sexual function like difficulty while ejaculation or low volumes of fluid is ejaculated, reduced trouble in maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction) or sexual desire or

  • Inability to smell

  • In the testicle area pain, swelling or a lump are observed

  • Recurrent respiratory infections

  • Having a lower sperm count than normal

  • breast growth will be abnormal (gynecomastia)

  • Decreased body or facial hair or other signs of a hormonal or chromosomal abnormality


Some causes are caused by physical problems that may prevent the sperms from being ejaculated into normally in semen. Others affect the production and quality of the sperm itself.

Sexually transmitted infections or diseases
  • Blockages – In few cases, men are born with blockages that may prevent sperm from getting into the semen.

  • Retrograde ejaculation – In this semen doesn’t come out from penis by the time of ejaculation, but enters into the bladder. It may be caused by some certain medications, diabetes and surgery to the bladder.

    Genetic diseases
  • Autoimmune problems – Immune system mistakenly target the sperm cells and treat them that they are foreign virus. By this sperm can damage.

  • Hormonal problems – Some hormonal imbalances in pituitary and thyroid glands

  • Sexual problems – Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation can apparently have an effect on fertility.

  • Varicoceles – Varicoceles are enlarged varicose veins that may developed in the scrotum and prevents the blood from flow properly. Some medicines may change sperm delivery, function and production. These medications are most frequently given to cure health problems like: , infections, arthritis, depression, cancer, digestive problems, high blood pressure.


The diagnosis of infertility starts initially by a medical history and physical examination by the doctor. Usually 2 separate semen analysis will be essential. The doctor may order to get blood tests to be done to look for any hormone imbalances, genetic issues or medical conditions. And other tests may include such as physical and general examination and medical history, transrectal ultrasound, scrotal ultrasound, semen analysis, specialized sperm function tests.