A fistula is formation of a hole or passage in between two organs in your body. If fistula that is formed in the vaginal wall it is called a vaginal fistula. If a vaginal fistula that open into a urinary tract then it is termed as vesico vaginal fistula. This hole may leads to continuous leakage of urine from the bladder into the vagina and causes urinary incontinence.

Vesico Vaginal Fistula


A vaginal fistula is painless. But a fistula will let urine or feces to pass into your vagina. This is known as incontinence. If you suffering with a vesico vaginal fistula, you will have symptoms like:

  • Fluid may leak or flow out of the vagina

  • Most likely you may observe foul-smelling discharge or gas which is coming from your vagina, genital area and may get infected or sore.


The most general cause of this vaginal fistula is a gynecologic surgery. The bladder which lies directly above the vagina and surgery to the vagina may lead to fistula. Another main cause of fistula is radiation therapy for gynecologic cancer. Radiation may cause progressive damage and these fistulas can happen many years after the treatment has been administered. A period of inflammatory bowel disease or diverticulitis.


Initially physical exam was by your doctor to observe vaginal walls through speculum. And other tests, may include such as:

  • The use of dye in the vagina (and may be the bladder or rectum) to locate all signs of leakage.

  • Urinalysis to check if there is any infection.

  • Blood test (complete blood count) to ensure for signs of infection in your body.

  • X-ray, endoscope or MRI to get a clear view and check for all the possible tissue damage.

Sometimes placing a catheter in the bladder may solve the problem and allow the healing of fistula. This is mainly true just after some type of surgical injury. When fistula won’t heal on their own they need to be closed surgically.