Generally urine will flows starting from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. But vesicoureteral reflux is termed as the back flow of urine from the bladder into the kidneys. Along with the pressure of urine in the bladder, the muscles of the bladder and ureters, prevents urine from flowing back through the ureters.

Vesicoureteral Reflux allows the bacteria, which are there in the urine in the bladder, to contact the kidneys. This may cause to kidney damage and infection, scarring.

Most commonly the infants and young children, but even adults and older children may also be affected with Vesicoureteral reflux. About 10 % of children have VUR.


urinary tract infection (UTI) can most common symptom for VUR. About 1/3rd of children who are diagnosed with a UTI are having VUR. Symptoms of a UTI include frequent urination, pain or burning with urination, fever and the feeling that the bladder is not emptied completely.


The main cause of VUR is unknown. Yet in many children with VUR have some characteristics that are common:

  • VUR is most commonly in children and siblings of people with VUR. Genetic component will effects highly to VUR, even though no exact genes have been recognized.

  • Children with abnormally functioning bladder due to nerve or spinal cord problems, such as spina bifida, may have VUR.

  • VUR may cause in children along with extra urinary tract abnormalities like posterior urethral valves, ureterocele or ureter duplication, bladder exstrophy.

  • Children with dysfunctional voiding may be more probable to have VUR.

  • During infancy, the disease is more frequently seen in boys. In older children, VUR is more commonly seen in girls.


Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) can only diagnosed by a single test it is called as cystogram, In this test a catheter is placed through the urethra into the bladder, and the bladder is filled with a fluid. This method allows surgeons to observe the reverse flow of urine to the kidney. The most common tests used to diagnose VUR include voiding cystourethrogram, radionuclide cystogram, abdominal ultrasound, urinalysis and urine culture, urodynamics, renal ultrasound, blood test, radionuclide cystogram.